Prevalencia de ideación suicida en estudiantes de medicina: Una revisión sistemática. Ideación suicida en estudiantes de medicina.

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Francisco Javier Lievanos-Ruiz
Fabiola González Betanzos
Alicia Edith Hermosillo de la Torre
Luis Miguel Sánchez-Loyo

Resumen

Se ha señalado que los estudiantes de medicina son una población vulnerable a comportamientos suicidas; sin embargo, la evidencia sobre la prevalencia de ideación suicida en estos estudiantes es heterogénea. El objetivo de la presente revisión sistemática fue identificar la prevalencia de ideación suicida en estudiantes de medicina, así como las formas de medición y su relación con la prevalencia identificada. Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en ocho de las principales bases de datos científicas; se consideró un periodo de 10 años de publicaciones; se obtuvieron los intervalos de confianza de las prevalencias de ideación suicida en cada estudio; se agruparon de acuerdo con el periodo de prevalencia y el instrumento utilizado. En cada periodo se calculó la media, la varianza, la desviación estándar y el intervalo de confianza (95%) de la media. Los resultados muestran que la presencia de ideación suicida alguna vez en la vida fue de 15.7 y 35.3%, durante la carrera entre 3.7 y 11.8%, durante el último año entre 7 y 35.6% y en la actualidad entre 1.6 y 43.6%. Conclusión: existe una alta variabilidad en la prevalencia de ideación suicida entre los diferentes estudios revisados, posiblemente asociada a diversos sesgos metodológicos. La presente revisión pone en evidencia la necesidad de seleccionar adecuadamente los instrumentos para determinar la prevalencia de ideación suicida.

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